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A
  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z
4E (Pt) Four elements.  The grade at Anglo Platinum mines is always measured as the combined content of the four most valuable precious metals - platinum, palladium, rhodium and gold
A  
AE Autorisation d'Exploration
AEM Airborne electromagnetic survey
Ag The chemical symbol for silver
Alluvial Deposited by the action of running water in a stream
Alteration Changes in the composition of a rock, generally chemical or mineralogical, brought about by weathering or hydrothermal activity
Arisings (Pt) The valuable product after a stage in processing
Arsenopyrite A sulphide mineral of arsenic and iron (Fe AsS)
Assay The chemical test of rock samples to determine their mineral content
Assay To analyze the proportions of metals in an ore
Au Chemical symbol for gold
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B  
Backfill Waste material used to fill the void created by mining an ore body with the purpose of providing both regional and localised support
Below Collar A distance below the surface elevation of a shaft
Bench (Pt) The equivalent of a level in an underground mine most noticeable as the step-like features in an open-pit wall.  The open-pit bench height is calculated to match the rock strength, pit economics and capabilities of the open-pit machinery. Typical bench heights in open-pit mines range from 10 to 20 metres.
Best Cut (Pt) The optimum stoping width for mining of the reef at prevailing metal prices and costs.
BIC Bushveld Igneous Complex
Birimian Geological Time Era, about 2.1 billion years ago in which a suite of rocks charateristic to West Africa formed
Boudinage A structure common in strongly deformed sedimentary and metamorphic rock, in which an original continuous competent layer or bed between less competent layers has been stretched, thinned and broken at regular intervals into bodies resembling boudius or sausages
Breccia/Brecciation Rock type, formed from recrystallised fragments of other rocks
Built-up Head Grade (Pt) The total 4E grams produced from the concentrating process from concentrate, metallics (where applicable) and tailings divided by the total tons milled.
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C  
Capex Capital expenditure
Carat From the Arabic quirrat seed, unit for measuring the mass of precious stones; it is equal to 0,2g/0,00705 oz, and is part of the troy system of weights. It is also unit of purity in gold (US karat). Pure gold is 24-carat (the purest used in jewelry, is 22 parts gold and 2 parts alloy) to give greater strength.
Carbon-in-leach A recovery process in which a slurry of gold ore, carbon granules and cyanide are mixed together. The cyanide dissolves the gold which is absorbed on the carbon. The carbon is subsequently separated from the slurry for further gold removal.
Carbon-In-Leach (CIL) Similar to the CIP plant except the gold is leached and absorbed onto carbon granules in the same circuit. The carbon granules are separated and eluted in the same way as for CIP.
Carbon-in-pulp Similar to carbon-in-leach process, but initially the slurry is subjected to cyanide leaching in separate tanks followed by carbon-in-pulp. Carbon-in-leach is a simultaneous process.
Carbon-In-Pulp (CIP) Gold is leached conventionally from a slurry of gold ore with cyanide in agitated tanks. The leached slurry passed into the CIP circuit where carbon granules are mixed with the slurry and gold is absorbed onto the carbon. The granules are separated from the slurry and treated in an elution circuit to remove to gold
Cash Costs Cash costs include site costs for all mining (excluding deferred development costs), processing and administration, but are exclusive of royalties, production taxes, amortisation and rehabilitation, as well as corporate administration, capital and exploration costs.
Channel Width The total thickness of all reef bands including internal waste.
Co Chemical symbol for cobalt
Concentrating (Pt) This is the process of separating milled ore into a waste stream (tailings) and a valuable mineral stream (concentrate) by the flotation operation.  The valuable minerals in the concentrate contain almost all the base metal and precious metal minerals; these minerals are treated further by the smelting and refining process to obtain the pure metals (Cu, Ni and Platinum Group Metals).
Craton A part of the earth's crust that has attained stability and has been little deformed for a long time
Cu Chemical symbol for copper
Cut-off grade The lowest grade material that can be included in a potentially economic intersection without dropping the overall grade below a specified level, referred to as the minimum mining grade. Lowest grade of mineralised material that qualifies as ore.
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D  
Decline (Pt) A generic term used to describe a shaft at an inclination below the horizontal and usually at the same angle as the dip of the reef
Development The process of exposing an ore body through tunneling
Development (Pt) Any tunnelling operation which has for its object either exploration or exploitation.
Development waste All development in country rock.
Development-Reef All development on the reef horizon.
Diamond drilling A rock drilling method using a rotary diamond bit which is attached to long hollow rods. The drill cuts a cylindrical core of solid rock, recovered for geological and metallurgical examination, and assay purposes
Dike A tabular igneous intrusion that cuts across the planar structures of the surrounding rock
Dilution Mixing of ore grade material with non-ore grade/waste material in the mining process
Dip The angle that a structural surface, a bedding or fault plane, makes with the horizontal, measured perpendicular to the strike of the structure
Direct reduced iron (DRI) A process by which iron ore (65-70% Fe203) is reduced, using reformed gas, and produces metallic iron ore pellets (90-93%Fe); these pellets can be used in replacement of scrap steel in electric-arc furnaces
Drill-core The sample of rock obtained by diamond drilling
Dwt Pennyweight
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E  
Exclusive Exploration Permit
Exploitation Permit
Chemical process of recovering gold after elution process
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F  
Face Advance (Pt) The average distance the stope face advances per month.  A measure of resource utilisation.
Fault A fracture in rock along which there has been an observable amount of displacement
Feasibility study A definitive engineering study addressing the economic viability of bringing a deposit to the production stage; taking into consideration all associated costs, revenues and risks. The study is used to support the search for project financing.
Flotation (Pt) In the flotation process milled ore mixed with water or pulp is passed through a series of agitated tanks.  Various chemicals are added to the pulp in sequence to render the valuable minerals hydrophobic (water repellant) and the non-valuable minerals hydrophilic (water loving).  Air is dispersed throughout the agitated tanks and rises to the surface.  The hydrophobic particles attach to the rising air bubbles and are removed from the main volume of pulp as a soapy froth.  In this manner various combinations of flotation cells in series are utilised to produce a concentrated stream of valuable mineral particles called the 'concentrate' and a waste pulp stream called 'tailings'.
Footwall The underlying side of an orebody
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G  
G/T Grammes per metric tonne gold
Geophysical surveys A survey method used primarily in the mining industry as an exploration tool, applying the methods of physics and engineering to the earth’s surface. Exploration by observation of seismic of electrical phenomena and the earth’s gravitational or magnetic fields, using specialized instrumentation
GIS A geographical information system is a computerised relational database for spatial information
Grade The amount of valuable element in each ton of ore, expressed as troy ounces per ton for precious metals and as a percentage for other metals Cut-off grade is the minimum metal grade at which an ore body can be economically mined Millhead grade is the metal content of mined ore going into a mill for processing Recovered grade is actual metal content of ore determined after processing Reserve grade is estimated metal content of an ore body, based on reserve calculations
Grade also "yield" Gold recovered per unit of rock milled or treated. Normally measured as grams of gold per ton of rock
Grain The smallest unit of mass in the three English systems (avoirdupois, troy and apothecaries’ weights) used in the UK and USA, equal to 0,0648g. It was reputedly the weight of a grain of wheat. One pound avoirdupois equals 7 000 grains; one pound troy apothecaries weight equals 5 760 grains
Gram Metric unit of mass; one thousandth of a kilogram
Granite A medium to coarse grained igneous intrusive rock in which quartz constitutes 10 to 50 percent of the felsic components
Granitoid Geological rock type
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H  
Hanging Wall The overlying side of an orebody
Hard-rock gold mining The mining of gold deposits in bedrock, i.e. deposits other than alluvial, colluvial or eluvial deposits
Head Grade The gold contained in material passing through the mill in grams per tonne or troy ounces per short ton milled
Heap leaching A process whereby metals are extracted by heaping broken ore on an impermeable pad, and repeatedly spraying with solutions which percolate through the heap, dissolving a high percentage of the metal content. The resulting mineral solution is then collected for metal recovery generally by electro-winning
Heap/dump leaching A process whereby gold is extracted by "heaping" broken ore on sloping impermeable pads and repeatedly spraying the heaps with a weak cyanide solution which dissolves the gold content. The gold-laden solution is collected for gold recovery
Heavy minerals Minerals with high specific gravity such as ilmenite, zircon, garnets, magnetite and rutile
Hedging Generally refers to any precaution against risk. In the context of gold mines refer specifically to measures to reduce the risk of gold price fluctuations – particularly a fall in the gold price. Hedging has almost become standard practice to "insure" funding over the duration of large capital expenditure programs. Hedging the gold price is done by forward contracts and options and has developed into quite an art form.
Horizon A plane of stratification assumed to have been once horizontal and continuous
Hydrothermal Process of injection of heated or hot acqucous-rich solutions into existing rocks
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I  
Igneous Formed by the solidification of hot mobile material termed magma
Immediately available ore reserves (Pt) Ground available for mining without any further development
Indicated Mineral Resource is that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence.  It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes.  The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed
Inferred Mineral Resource is that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence.  It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity.  It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, tenches, pits, workings and drill holes that may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability
In-Situ The original, natural state of the orebody before mining or processing of the ore takes place
Internal Waste Any waste within the reef channel
Intrusion The process of emplacement of magma (naturally occurring molten rock material generated within the earth) in pre-existing rock
IP Survey Induced polarisation survey
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K  
Kimberlite fissures Kimberlite fissures or dykes are intrusive bodies occurring along structural weaknesses in rocks. Generally economic diamond-bearing fissures in South Africa average 600mm to 800mm in width and may well be more than 5 km in strike length
Kriging An interpolation method that minimises the estimation error in the determination of mineral resources
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L  
Leaching The dissolving of elements and minerals out of ore
Lenticular Resembling in shape the cross section of a lens
Long-hole stoping A mining method involving drilling of long holes (up to 30 metres) into the orebody and then blasting a slice rock into an open chamber. The broken rock is then extracted leaving the chamber free for the next round of blasting
Lower Proterozoic Era or geological time between 2.5 x 109 and 1.8 and 109 years before the present
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M  
m Metre
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MDM Metallurgaical Design and Management
Measured Resource That portion of a mineral resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of confidence.  It is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through workings and drill holes.  The locations are spaced closely enough to confirm geological and/or grade continuity
Merensky Reef (Pt) A band in the Bushveld sequence often containing economic grades of PGM.  Merensky Reef is the principal reef mined at Rustenburg Platinum Mines
Meta-morphosed The mineralogical and structural adjustment of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions which have been imposed at depth below the surface zones of weathering and cementation
Metallurgy The science and art of separating metals from their ores by mechanical and chemical processes
Metasediment A sedimentary rock that has undergone metamorphism
Metavolcanic A rock which was volcanically extruded onto the surface and subsequently altered mineralogically by a combination of heat and pressure. (Metamorphism)
Meta-volcanics Metamorphosed volcanic rocks
Mill A plant where ore is ground fine and undergoes physical or chemical treatment to extract the valuable metals
Milling (Pt) Process to reduce broken ore to a size where concentrating can be undertaken
Mineral A naturally formed chemical element of compound having a definite chemical composition and, usually, a characteristic crystal form
Mineral Reserve is the economically mineable material derived from a measured and/or indicated Mineral Resource.  It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined.  Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of, and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors.  These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is justifiable.  Mineral Reserves are subdivided in order of increasing confidence into Probable Mineral Reserves and Proved Mineral Reserves
Mineral  Resource is a concentration or occurrence of material of economic interest in or on the Earth's crust in such form and quantity that there are reasonable and realistic prospects for eventual economic extraction.  The location, quantity, grade, continuity and other geological characteristics of a Mineral Resource are known, estimated from specific geological evidence and knowledge, or interpreted from a well constrained and portrayed geological model.  Mineral resources are subdivided, in order of increasing confidence in respect of geoscientific evidence, into Inferred, Indicated and Measured categories
Mineral Resources Any mineral deposit in such form and quantity that mining of the mineral may be feasible. The location, grade, quality and quantity of ore are estimated from specific geological evidence. Mineral resources are subdivided based upon the confidence of estimated qualities of that resource
Mineral sands (heavy) Alluvial sand deposits containing a varied combination of fine-grained heavy minerals
Mining Area (Pt) The area for which a mining authorisation /permision to mine has been granted
Mo Chemical symbol for molybdenum
MOZ Million troy ounces
MT Million metric tons
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N  
Ni Chemical symbol for nickel
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O  
On-reef development Tunnels that are driven on the plane of The gold bearing reef. The most common form of on-reef development is "raise lines" that are driven up the dip of the reef
Open-pit Open cut; mine worked at surface
Ore Rock which contains a mineral or a concentration of minerals and/or metals which can be mined for a profit
Ore reserve That part of a "Resource" which feasibility studies have shown "could be recovered economically under conditions realistically assumed at the time of reporting"
Orebody Mostly solid and fairly continuous mass of mineralisation estimated to be economically mineable
Overburden Uneconomic material which overlies a bed of useful material; barren rock material overlying a mineral deposit
Oxidised Ore (Pt) Ore that has decomposed by exposure to surface and near-surface elements
Oz Ounce
Oz/ton Ounce of a particular element per short ton of rock
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P  
Pay Limit That grade at which the value of the ore is equal to the total cost of recovering the precious metal content
Pb Chemical symbol for lead
PGM Platinum Group Metals, six metallic elements found in association with each other and constitute the platinoids: Platinum (PI), Palladium (Pd), Rhodium (Rh), Ruthenium (Ru), Osmium (Os), and Iridium (Ir)
Pillar Mining The mining of scattered blocks of reef of variable size usually associated with older shafts, which have been left behind and are now being mined in the final clean-up stage of the mine’s ore body
Placer A surficial mineral deposit formed by mechanical concentration of mineral particles from weathered debris
Platreef (Pt) The name of the ore mined at Potgietersrus Platinums
Pluton An igneous intrusion
Ppm Parts of a particular element per million parts of rock or soil
Pre-feasibility study The initial stage of the feasibility study in which the accuracy of the factors involved such as costs and revenues is +- 25%. Should the pre-feasibility study be positive, then the company would move to the final feasibility study
Probable Mineral Reserve  (Anglo Platinum's definition) is the economically mineable material derived from a Measured and/or Indicated Mineral Resource.  It is estimated with a lower level of confidence than a Proved Mineral Reserve.  It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined.  Apppropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal environmental, social and governmental factors.  These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified.
Probable Ore Reserve The economically mineable part of an Indicated, and in some circumstances, Measured Mineral Resource, it includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined.  Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out and include consideration of and modification by realistically assumed, mining, metallurgica, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors.  These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified
Proved Mineral Reserve (Anglo Platinum's definition) is the economically mineable material derived from a Measured Mineral Resource.  It is estimated with a high level of confidence.  It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined.  Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of and modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors.  These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified. 
Proven Ore Reserve The economically mineable part of a Measured Mineral Resource.  It includes diluting material and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined.  Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out and include consideration of and modification by realistically assumed, mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors.  These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified
Productivity An expression of labour productivity based either upon the ratio of grams of gold produced to the total number of employees or the area mined in square metres to the total number of employees
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Q  
Quartz Crystalline silica; silicon dioxide
Quartzite A very hard, often metamorphosed, sandstone consisting chiefly of tightly cemented quartz grains
Quartzitic Contining beds of quartzite, a sedimentary or metamorphic rock composed almost entirely of quartz grains
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R  
RC Reverse circulation drilling
Reclamation The process by which lands disturbed as a result of mining activity are reclaimed back to a beneficial land use. Reclamation activity includes the removal of buildings, equipment, machinery and other physical remnants of mining, closure of tailings impoundments, leach pads and other mine features, and contouring, covering and revegetation of waste rock piles and other disturbed areas
Recovery Rate A term used in process metallurgy to indicate the proportion of valuable material obtained in the processing of an ore. It is generally stated as a percentage of the material recovered compared with the total material present
Reef A gold-bearing quartz vein
Reef Ore of economic interest
Refining The final stage of metal production in which impurities are removed from the molten metal
Regolith Fragmental and unconsolidated rock material overlying bedrock
Resource definitions The mineral resources and mineral reserves of the Group are classified, verified and reported in accordance with statutory, stock exchange and industry/professional guidelines.  The classifications are based on the SAMREC Code.
Reverse circulation drilling (RC) A drilling method using a tricone bit, during which rock cuttings are pushed to the surface through an outer tube by liquid and/or air pressure moving through an inner tube
Reverse fault A thrust fault with a dip of 45" or less in which the hanging wall appears to have moved upward relative to the footwall
ROM Run of Mine - equivalent to normal feed ore from mining operations
RP Reconnaise permit
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S  
Sandstone A medium-grained sedimentary rock composed of abundant fragments of sand size set in a fine-grained matrix of silt or clay
Samrec (Pt) The South African Mineral Resources Committee
Saprolite Weathered rock with distinguishable features/minerals of original rock
Schist A strongly foliated crystalline rock formed by dynamic metamorphism
Sedimentary Sourced from erosion of other rock
Shale A fine-grained detrital sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of clay, silt or mud and characterized by finely stratified structure
Shear zone A tabular zone of rock that has been crushed and brecciated by many parallel fractures due to shear strain
Shrinkage mining: A mining method often used when mining narrow orebodies, whereby a series of short holes are drilled into the face of the orebody. The rock is then blasted and remains until the entire zone is mined at which time the broken rock is extracted
Sintering To form large particles, or lumps, or masses from, inter alia, metal powders by heating or pressure or both
Smelting A metallurgical operation in which metal is separated from impurities by a process that includes fusion
Spot gold price Refers to the open market gold price that we all hear on the radio or see in the morning paper. A spot price is the opposite of a contractual or fixed price, which remains constant over a certain agreed period
Sterilisation Drilling carried out to ensure there is no hidden mineralisation below of permanent infrastrucutre (also known as condemnation drilling)
Stope An area in an underground mine where ore is mined
Stopes Underground excavations where the ore body is extracted on the plane of the reef
Stoping The process of mining the ore body on the plane of the reef
Stoping Width The sum of the channel width and external waste widths
Strike The direction or trend that a structural surface, e.g. a bedding or fault plane, takes as it intersects the horizontal
Stringer A mineral veinlet (typically less than 1cm wide), or filament occurring in a discontinuous pattern in the host rock
Stripping Ratio (Pt) The number of units of unpayable material which is to be mined in order to expose one unit of ore
Sulphide A compound of sulphur with metallic element
Sweepings (Pt) The final process in stoping operations where the footwall is thoroughly cleaned to remove the last portion of broken ore and fines
Syncline A concave upward fold, the core of which contains the stratigraphically younger rocks
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T
T (t) Tonne
Tailings Finely ground rock material that remains once all economically-valuable metals are removed
Tailings Ultra-fine particles of low residual value which are discarded by the metallurgical process
Tailings The material that remains after all metals considered economic have been removed from ore during milling
Tailings Grade (Pt) The 4E content of the tailings produced by the milling and concentrating process - when compared to head grade is a measure of the efficiency of the concentrating process
Termitary Geochemical sampling of residual surficial material (mounds) produced by termites
Ton (Used in imperial statistics) A short tone equal to 2 000 pounds
Tonne (Used in metric statistics) Equal to 1 000 kilograms
Tourmaline A mineral commonly found as an accessory in intermediate to felsic igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks and certain sedimentary rocks
TPM Metric tonnes per month
Tramming Width A dimension used to denote the effect of waste tons in the stoping operation, such as from gullies, on the reef tons produced. It is the sum of the channel width plus the impact of waste tonnage in the stoping operation, e.g. from gullies and extraneous falls of ground, expressed in centimetres
Transport The moving of broken rock to the shaft and the transport of men and materials to the working faces
Trend The regional strike of a geological feature
Troy ounce (Used in imperial statistics) Equal to 31 10348 grams
Troy system A system of units used for precious metals and gems. The pound troy (0.37kg) consists of 12 ounces (each of 120 carats) or 5 760 grains (each equal to 65 mg)
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U  
U Chemical symbol for uranium
UG 2 Reef A chromite layer within the critical zone of the Bushveld Igneous Complex
Unit working costs or gold production costs Average working costs per unit of output, also referred to as gold production costs. In the case of gold mines this is usually expressed as rand per kilogram of gold. Other measures are rand per ounce and dollar per ounce
Unoxidised Ore (Pt) Ore that has not undergone changes/degradation due to the weathering process close to surface
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V  
Vein A thin sheetlike crosscutting body of hydrothermal mineralization, principally quartz
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W  Weathering The destructive process constituting that part of erosion whereby earthy and rocky materials on exposure to atmospheric agents at or near the earth’s surface are changed in character with little or no transport of the loosened or altered material
Whittle 4D An optimisation computer program used for open pit mine design
Wireframe Outline of an orebody based on varying parameters
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 Y
Yield The amount of valuable mineral in the ore expressed as grams per tonne or troy ounces per short ton
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 Z

Zn Chemical symbol for zinc
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